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Referencing: Meaning, Styles, Examples & Guidelines

What is Referencing? Referencing is the practice of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you use in your own work. It’s essential in academic writing, research papers, and other forms of scholarly communication to give credit to the original authors or creators of the information you’re using. Referencing typically involves including in-text citations […]

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Research Methodology: Types, Process, Chapter Example

What is Research Methodology? Research methodology refers to the systematic process of planning, conducting, and analyzing research studies. It involves the principles, techniques, and procedures used to collect, analyze, interpret, and present data in a scientific manner. Research Methodology is also a crucial section of a thesis, dissertation or scientific paper because it outlines the

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Thesis Defense: Presentation, Structure, Questions and Sample Speech

What is Thesis Defense? A thesis defense, also known as a viva voce or oral defense, is an academic event where a student presents their research work and findings to a panel of experts in their field. It typically marks the culmination of their graduate studies, especially at the master’s or doctoral level. The purpose

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Literature Review: Purpose, Format, Process and Example

What is Literature Review? A literature review is a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of existing research and scholarly articles relevant to a particular topic or research question. The aim of a literature review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge on the topic, identify gaps, and highlight areas for

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Monograph: Definition, Types, Format & How-To Guide

What is a Monograph? A monograph is a detailed written study or essay on a specific subject, usually in the form of a book. It typically focuses on a single topic, providing comprehensive coverage and analysis. Monographs are common in academic and research settings, where scholars delve deeply into a particular subject matter, presenting original

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Precis: Types, Format, Example and How-To Guide

What is a Precis? A precis is a concise summary or abstract of a text, speech, or other form of communication. It condenses the main ideas, arguments, and key points of the original work into a shorter version while maintaining the essence and tone of the original. Precis writing requires the ability to extract the

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IMRAD: Format, Purpose and Structure Example

What is IMRAD? IMRAD is an acronym used to describe the structure of scientific and academic papers. It stands for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. This format is commonly used in various scientific disciplines, especially in fields such as biology, medicine, psychology, and social sciences. IMRAD Format: The IMRAD structure is a commonly used format

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Peer Review: Types, Format, Process & How-To Guide

What is Peer Review? Peer review is a process used in academic and scientific research to evaluate the quality and validity of scholarly work before it is published. When a researcher submits a paper to a journal or conference, the editor typically sends it to experts in the field who are known as peers or

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Capstone Project: Format, Ideas & Proposal Example

What is Capstone Project? A capstone project is a culminating academic or professional endeavor that students undertake towards the end of their program or degree. It’s often seen in higher education, particularly in fields like business, engineering, healthcare, and computer science, but it can also be found in vocational training or professional development programs. The

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