Referencing: Meaning, Styles, Examples & Guidelines

What is Referencing? Referencing is the practice of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you use in your own work. It’s essential in academic writing, research papers, and other forms of scholarly communication to give credit to the original authors or creators of the information you’re using. Referencing typically involves including in-text citations […]


Research Methodology: Types, Process, Chapter Example

What is Research Methodology? Research methodology refers to the systematic process of planning, conducting, and analyzing research studies. It involves the principles, techniques, and procedures used to collect, analyze, interpret, and present data in a scientific manner. Research Methodology is also a crucial section of a thesis, dissertation or scientific paper because it outlines the

Thesis Writing

How to Write a Thesis – Step by Step Guide

Writing a thesis can seem daunting, but breaking it down into manageable steps can make the process much more manageable. A thesis represents more than just a culmination of your academic knowledge—it’s an opportunity to contribute original insights to your field of study, to engage deeply with existing scholarship, and to showcase your ability to


Thesis Defense: Presentation, Structure, Questions and Sample Speech

What is Thesis Defense? A thesis defense, also known as a viva voce or oral defense, is an academic event where a student presents their research work and findings to a panel of experts in their field. It typically marks the culmination of their graduate studies, especially at the master’s or doctoral level. The purpose


Literature Review: Purpose, Format, Process and Example

What is Literature Review? A literature review is a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of existing research and scholarly articles relevant to a particular topic or research question. The aim of a literature review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge on the topic, identify gaps, and highlight areas for


Monograph: Definition, Types, Format & How-To Guide

What is a Monograph? A monograph is a detailed written study or essay on a specific subject, usually in the form of a book. It typically focuses on a single topic, providing comprehensive coverage and analysis. Monographs are common in academic and research settings, where scholars delve deeply into a particular subject matter, presenting original

Essay Writing

Question Essay: Format, Topics, Example & How-To Guide

What is a Question Essay? A question essay is a type of academic or analytical writing that explores a specific question or set of questions in depth. The essay then delves into exploring these questions from various angles, often incorporating research, evidence, and critical analysis to develop nuanced insights and perspectives. Unlike traditional essays that


Precis: Types, Format, Example and How-To Guide

What is a Precis? A precis is a concise summary or abstract of a text, speech, or other form of communication. It condenses the main ideas, arguments, and key points of the original work into a shorter version while maintaining the essence and tone of the original. Precis writing requires the ability to extract the


IMRAD: Format, Purpose and Structure Example

What is IMRAD? IMRAD is an acronym used to describe the structure of scientific and academic papers. It stands for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. This format is commonly used in various scientific disciplines, especially in fields such as biology, medicine, psychology, and social sciences. IMRAD Format: The IMRAD structure is a commonly used format


Peer Review: Types, Format, Process & How-To Guide

What is Peer Review? Peer review is a process used in academic and scientific research to evaluate the quality and validity of scholarly work before it is published. When a researcher submits a paper to a journal or conference, the editor typically sends it to experts in the field who are known as peers or

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